Africa is the second largest continent and the second largest in the world. Approximately 30.3 million square kilometers (7.11 million square miles), including the islands, covers six percent of the Earth’s surface and 20.4 percent of the total area. With 1.1 million people in 2013, representing about 15% of the human population in the world. Continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea in the north, both the Suez Canal and the Red Sea in the Sinai Peninsula, northeast, southeast Indian Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean west. Continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagoes. It has 54 fully recognized sovereign state (country), new territories and two independent states de facto with little or no recognition.
The population of Africa is the youngest among all the continent; The mean age was 19.7 in 2012, while the average age was 30.4 in the world Algeria is the largest country in Africa by area, and the population of Nigeria. Africa, especially Central Africa, is widely accepted as the place of origin of human beings and the hominid clade (great apes), as evidenced by the discovery of the first hominids and their ancestors, and later that they have dated, there are about seven million years Sahelanthropus including, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster -. with early Homo sapiens (modern man) that are found in Ethiopia, which is dated to around 200,000 years. Croatia surrounds the equator and encompasses numerous climate areas; It is the only continent stretching north temperate climate temperate south.
Africa is home to a great diversity of races, cultures and languages. In European countries in the late 19th century colonized most of the African countries. Africa is also very variable regarding the environment, economics, historical ties and government systems. However, these conditions in Africa are out of the process of decolonization in the 20th century. Africa Wiki
Afri was the Latin name used to refer to the peoples of Africa, which applies to all countries in the broadest sense of the south (ancient Libya) Mediterranean. This name seems to be a source of indigenous tribes in Libya; Terence biography discussion. The name is usually related to Hebrew or Phoenician’Afar “dust”, but in 1981 hypothesis states that follows Berber codes (plural Ifran) “cave”, in relation to the cave inhabitants.The same words can be found and the name of Banu Ifran from Algeria and Tripolitania, the original Berber tribes Yafran (aka cedar) in the north-western Libya.
Under Roman rule, Carthage became the capital of the province of Africa proconsul, which also includes the coastal part of modern Libya.Latin suffix sexual partners can sometimes be used to refer to the country (eg Celtic and Celtic, which is used by Caesar). The Muslim kingdom of Ifriqiya later today Tunisia, also preserved a form of the name.
According to Romans, Africa is in the west of Egypt, while “Asia” is used to refer to Anatolia and lands to the east. A clear line is drawn between the two continents by the geographer Ptolemy (85-165 AD), indicating Alexandria along the Greenwich Meridian and making the Straits of Suez and the Red Sea the boundary between Asia and Africa. As Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of “Africa” with expanded knowledge. Africa Wiki
Croatia is the most paleoanthropologists to be the oldest inhabited territory on Earth, with the human species from the mainland. In the middle of the 20th century, anthropologists discovered many fossils and evidence of human occupation perhaps already has 7 million years (BP = before present). It is believed that the fossil remains of several types of early humans monkeys have evolved into modern man, such as Australopithecus afarensis (radiometrically dated to about 3.9 to 3.0 million years BP, Paranthropus boisei (c. 2.3 -1.4 million years BP) and homo ergaster (c. 1,900,000 600,000 years BP) are discovered. Africa Wiki
After the evolution of Homo sapiens sapiens about 150,000 to 100,000 years in Africa, the continent was populated mainly by groups of hunter-gatherers. These early modern humans out of Africa and populated the rest of the world during the start of migration out of Africa II about 50,000 years BP, leaving the continent, any of Bab-el-Mandeb in the Red Sea, the Strait of Gibraltar and Morocco or the Suez Canal in Egypt.
Other migration of modern humans in the African continent have been dated to the time, with traces of the earliest human settlements in southern Africa, West Africa, North Africa and the Sahara.
Size Sahara has always been highly variable, rapidly fluctuating field, and sometimes disappear depending on global climate change. At the end of the Ice Age, it is estimated that around 10,500 years BC, the Sahara has again become a green fertile valley, and its African back high in the country and the coastal land in Africa rock art paintings that represent SSA Sahara fertile population and great discoveries in Tasi n ‘Adzer before perhaps 10,000 years. However, global warming and drying meant that 5000 years BC the Sahara region is becoming increasingly dry and hostile. Around 3500 BC, because of the inclination of the orbit of the Earth, the Sahara has experienced rapid period of desertification. The population has migrated from the Sahara region towards the Nile Valley below the Second Cataract where they made permanent or semi-permanent settlements. The main climatic recession occurred, lower persistent heavy rains in central and eastern Africa. From that moment on, dry conditions prevailed in East Africa, all in the last 200 years, in Ethiopia.
Around 3,300 years before Christ, the historical record opens in Northern Africa with the development of literacy in the Pharaonic civilization of Ancient Egypt. One of the oldest and longest in the world, civilizations, Egyptian state continuation, with different levels of impact on other areas, until 343 BC. Egyptian influence reached deep into today in Libya and Nubia, and Martin Bernal, south of Crete.
An independent center of civilization with trading links to Phoenicia was established by Phoenicians from Tyre on the northwest coast of Africa Carthage. European exploration of Africa began the ancient Greeks and Romans. [Citation needed] in 332 BC, Alexander the Great was welcomed as a liberator in Egypt occupied by the Persians. He founded Alexandria in Egypt, which would become the prosperous city of the Ptolemaic dynasty after his death.
After the conquest of the Mediterranean coast of North Africa by the Roman Empire, the area was integrated economically and culturally into the Roman system. Roman settlement occurred in modern Tunisia and elsewhere along the coast. The first Roman Emperor originally from North Africa was Septimius Severus, born in Leptis Magna in Libya and his mother is Italian Roman and his father was Panic.
Christianity spread in these areas very early, in Judea and Egypt beyond the borders of the Roman world into Nubia
Ninth to eighteenth centuries
Pre-colonial Africa has 10,000 that the state and the political is characterized by many different types of political organizations and different rules. This includes small family groups of hunter-gatherers such as the Bushmen in southern Africa; large groups, such as structured clan groups, family peoples of central Africa, southern and eastern Bantu languages; clan groups in the Horn of Africa is very structured; great kingdoms of the Sahel; and the city-states and autonomous kingdoms, such as those from the Akan; Edo, Yoruba, Igbo and people in West Africa; and commercial Swahili coastal towns of East Africa.
In the ninth century, a series of dynastic states, including the first Hausa states, stretched across sub-Saharan savannah of western areas in central Sudan. The most powerful of these states were Ghana, Gao and Kanem-Borno Empire. Ghana fell in the eleventh century, but was replaced by Mali Empire, which consolidates more than western Sudan in the thirteenth century. Kanem accepted Islam in the eleventh century.
After the breakup of Mali a local leader named Sonni Ali (1464-1492) founded the Songhai Empire in the middle Niger and the western Sudan and took control of the trade across the Sahara. Sonni Ali’s Timbuktu in 1468 and Jenne in 1473, building his regime on trade revenues and the cooperation of Muslim merchants. His successor Askia Mohammad I (1493-1528) made Islam the official religion, built mosques, and brought Muslim scholars, including al-Gao Magh (d.1504), the founder of an important tradition ‘Sudanic studies African Muslims.  In the eleventh century some Hausa states – such as Kano, Jigawa, Katsina and Gobir – fortified cities become engaged in trade, servicing caravans, and the manufacture of products. By the fifteenth century, these small states were on the periphery of Sudanic empires of the era, paying taxes to Songhai to the west and Kanem-Borno to the east.
Height of slave trade
Slavery has long been practiced in Africa. Between the 7th and 20th centuries, Arab slave trade (also known as slavery in the East) 18 million slaves from Africa was waterways trans-Saharan Africa and India. Among the 19 century (500 years) 15 and the slave trade in the Atlantic, there were about 7 to 12,000,000 slaves in the New World. More than 1 million Europeans were captured by Barbary and sold as slaves in North Africa between the 16th and 19th century pirates.
In West Africa, the decline of the slave trade in the Atlantic Ocean in 1820 caused a dramatic economic changes in local policies. The gradual decline of the slave trade, inspired by the lack of demand for slaves in the New World, increasing anti-slavery legislation in Europe and America, and the increasing presence of the Royal Navy off the West African coast, obliged African states to adopt new economies. Between 1808 and 1860, the British West Africa Squadron is about 1,600 slave ships and freed 150,000 Africans who were aboard. Africa wiki
They have also taken against African leaders who refused to accept British agreements on the prohibition of trafficking, for example, against “the usurper King of Lagos”, introduced in 1851. Anti-slavery treaties were signed with over 50 African leaders. Great powers in West Africa (the Asante Confederacy, the Kingdom of Dahomey, and Oyo Empire) have adopted different ways to adapt to changes. Asante and Dahomey concentrated on the development of “legitimate trade” in the form of palm oil, cocoa, timber and gold, forming the basis for the export trade of modern western Africa. Oyo Empire, unable to adapt, fell into civil wars. Africa Wiki
Imperial rule Europeans would continue until after the end of World War II, when almost all remaining colonial territories gradually obtained formal independence. Independence movements in Africa have intensified after World War II, which left the major European powers weakened. In 1951, Libya, a former Italian colony, gained independence. In 1956, Tunisia and Morocco won their independence from France. Ghana is not the same next year (March 1957)] became the first sub-Saharan African colonies independence is granted. Most of the rest of the continent became independent over the next decade.
Presence outside Portugal in sub-Saharan Africa (especially Angola, Cape Verde, Mozambique, Guinea Bissau, Sao Tome and Principe) took place from the 16th century until 1975, after the Estado Novo regime was overthrown by a military coup in Lisbon. Rhodesia unilaterally declared its independence from Britain in 1965, dominated by the white minority of Ian Smith, but not internationally recognized as an independent state (such as Zimbabwe) until 1980, when black nationalists gained power after the guerrilla war. Although South Africa was one of the first African countries to gain independence, the country has remained under the control of the white minority in the country through the system of racial segregation known as apartheid until 1994.
Post-colonial Africa / Africa Wiki
Today, Africa contains 54 sovereign countries, most of which are the boundaries that were issued during the period of European colonialism. Since colonialism, African states are often burdened by instability, corruption, violence and authoritarianism. The vast majority of African states are republics that operate under some form of presidential system of government. However, some of them have been able to sustain democratic governments on a permanent basis, and many are instead passed through a series of shocks, produce a military dictatorship.
Great instability was mainly the result of marginalization of ethnic groups, and graft under these leaders. For political gain, many leaders fanned ethnic conflicts, some of which have been exacerbated or even created by colonial rule. In many countries, the military is seen as the only group that could effectively maintain order and delivered in many countries in Africa during the 1970s and early 1980s, the early 1960s to the late 1980s, Croatia had more than 70 strikes and 13 presidential assassinations. Border and territorial disputes were common, with the limits imposed by Europe to the challenge many countries are mainly in armed conflict.
Geography / Africa Wiki
Africa is the largest of the three major projections south of the mass of the Earth. Separated from Europe to the Mediterranean Sea, he joined Asia in the northeast extremity of the isthmus of Suez (separate from the Suez Canal), 163 km (101 miles) wide. (Geopolitics, Sinai Peninsula east of the Suez Canal in Egypt is often considered part of Africa, too.)
From the northernmost point, Ras ben Sakka in Tunisia (37 ° 21 ‘N) to a point further south, Cape Agulhas in South Africa (34 ° 51’15 “S) is a distance of about 8000 km (5000 miles), Cape Verde, 17 ° 33’22 “W, the westernmost point of the Ras Hafun in Somalia, 51 ° 27’52” E, maximum projection distance is about 7.400 km (4.600 mi.) coastline is 26,000 kilometers (16,000 miles) long, and absence of deep indentations coast illustrates the fact that Europe, which covers only 10,400,000 km2 (4,000,000 square miles) – about a third of the surface of Africa – has a coastline of 32,000 kilometers (20,000 miles).
The largest country in Africa, Algeria, and the smallest country in the Seychelles, an archipelago off the east coast. The smallest nation on the continental mainland is The Gambia.
Climate / Africa Wiki
The climate of Africa ranges from tropical to subarctic on its highest peaks. North half of all desert or dry, and has its central and southern savanna plains and areas of dense jungle (rainforest). Meanwhile, there is a convergence where vegetation species such as the Sahel and steppe dominate. Africa is the hottest continent on Earth, and 60% on the entire surface of the Earth consists of dry and deserts.The record for the highest temperature recorded everything, and Libya in 1922 (58 ° C (136 ° F) Africa Wiki
Although it has abundant natural resources, Africa remains the poorest continent and underdeveloped world, the result of various causes that may include corrupt governments that are often committed gross violations of human rights of man, not central planning, high level of illiteracy, lack of access to foreign capital, and often tribal and military conflict (ranging from guerrilla warfare to genocide) .According to report the development of the World human UN in 2003, the bottom 24 ranked countries (151st to 175th) all African
Culture / Africa Wiki
Some aspects of traditional African cultures have become less practiced in recent years because of neglect and suppression of the colonial regime and the postcolonial. For example, African customs have been discouraged and African languages and mission schools are prohibited. Leopold II of Belgium tried to “civilize” the Africans, to discourage polygamy and witchcraft. Africa Wiki
Obid freeborn postulates that colonialism is the element that created the character of modern African art. Authors Douglas Fraser and Herbert M. Cole, “changes between power structures caused by colonialism quickly followed by drastic changes in the iconographic art”. Fraser and Cole say in Igboland, some art “lack of energy and meticulous craftsmanship prior art functions.Author serves traditional Chika Okeke-Agulu states that” racist infrastructure of the British company Imperial imposed political and cultural guardians of the rule and denial and erasure of modern African art and sovereign emerging. “In Soweto, the West Rand Board of Directors has created a cultural part of the collection, reading and review scripts before that can happen actions. Publishers F. Abiola Irele and Simon Gikandi note that the current identity of African literature It has its origins in the” traumatic encounter between Africa and Europe. Africa Wiki